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Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) SYSTEMS

The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, UPS units with extended runtime configurations are also available. Most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems.

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Sales, Repairs, Maintenance, Battery Replacements and Upgrades of all makes, models and sizes for all applications and industries, including: Home/Private, Business/Commercial, Industrial, Medical and Mobile Vehicles(Cruise Liners, Cargo/Commercial Aircraft) etc, to name but a few.

Key Benefits:

  • No more data loss or corruption caused by unreliable and/or fluctuating Power Service providers.
  • Keep your lights, PC's/Laptops, Security Systems, Decoders and TV's on during extended Power Failures, Dips/Brown-Outs and Load Shedding.
  • Get Professional service and Expert advice on the correct, calculated requirements for your application specific needs and requirements.
  • Quality workmanship & peace of mind, knowing that all installations & repairs are carried out by Professionals who are Experts in their trade with calculated solutions and an eye for detail.

Capabilities and Uses:

Designed as an alternative power supply source to carry almost any type of load when normal utility power fails, customizable UPS Systems are specifically calculated to suite your application requirements and keep your critical electronic equipment, lights and data systems up and running during power failures and/or Dips, Surges and Brown-Outs. Customizable and upgradeable Systems designed for your specific runtime requirements which can be used in conjunction with Generator's to carry your load during the variable changeover period.

Form factor:

UPS's come in a range of form factors that fit into two master categories: rack-mounted and freestanding. The largest UPS's aren't available in rack-mounted form factors, so companies with substantial power requirements almost always use freestanding devices. For companies with more modest needs, deciding between rack-mounted and freestanding UPS's is largely a matter of data centre design philosophy. Some organizations use rack-mounted UPS's in an effort to consolidate as much hardware as possible in their enclosures. Others prefer to maximize the amount of rack space available for servers by using freestanding UPS's. From a technical and financial standpoint, neither approach is inherently superior to the other.

UPS Technologies:

The three general categories of modern UPS systems are on-line, line-interactive or standby. An on-line UPS uses a "double conversion" method of accepting AC input, rectifying to DC for passing through their rechargeable batteries (or battery strings), then inverting back to 120 V/230 VAC for powering the protected equipment. A line-interactive UPS maintains the inverter in line and redirects the battery's DC current path from the normal charging mode to supplying current when power is lost. In a standby "off-line" system the load is powered directly by the input power and the backup power circuitry is only invoked when the utility power fails. Most UPS's below 1 kVA are of the line-interactive or standby variety which are usually less expensive. For large power units, ??Dynamic Uninterruptible Power Supplies (DUPS) are sometimes used. A synchronous motor/alternator is connected on the mains via a choke. Energy is stored in a flywheel. When the mains power fails, an Eddy-current regulation maintains the power on the load as long as the flywheel's energy is not exhausted. DUPS are sometimes combined or integrated with a diesel generator that is turned on after a brief delay, forming a "diesel rotary uninterruptible power supply" (DRUPS). A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long run times in a small space.

Offline/Standby UPS:

The offline/standby UPS (SPS) offers only the most basic features, providing surge protection and battery backup. The protected equipment is normally connected directly to incoming utility power. When the incoming voltage falls below or rises above a predetermined level the SPS turns on its internal DC-AC inverter circuitry, which is powered from an internal storage battery. The UPS then mechanically switches the connected equipment on to its DC-AC inverter output. The switchover time can be as long as 25 milliseconds depending on the amount of time it takes the standby UPS to detect the lost utility voltage. The UPS will be designed to power certain equipment, such as a personal computer, without any objectionable dip or brownout to that device.

Line-interactive UPS:

The line-interactive UPS is similar in operation to a standby UPS, but with the addition of a multi-tap variable-voltage autotransformer. This is a special type of transformer that can add or subtract powered coils of wire, thereby increasing or decreasing the magnetic field and the output voltage of the transformer. This is also known as a Buck-boost transformer.

This type of UPS is able to tolerate continuous undervoltage brownouts and overvoltage surges without consuming the limited reserve battery power. Instead it compensates by automatically selecting different power taps on the autotransformer. Depending on the design, changing the autotransformer tap can cause a very brief output power disruption, which may cause UPSs equipped with a power-loss alarm to "chirp" for a moment.

This has become popular even in the cheapest UPS's because it takes advantage of components already included. The main 50/60 Hz transformer used to convert between line voltage and battery voltage needs to provide two slightly different turns ratios: One to convert the battery output voltage (typically a multiple of 12 V) to line voltage, and a second one to convert the line voltage to a slightly higher battery charging voltage (such as a multiple of 13.5-14 V). The difference between the two voltages is because charging a battery requires a delta voltage (up to 13-14 V for charging a 12 V battery). Furthermore, it is easier to do the switching on the line-voltage side of the transformer because of the lower currents on that side.

To gain the buck/boost feature, all that is required is two separate switches so that the AC input can be connected to one of the two primary taps, while the load is connected to the other, thus using the main transformer's primary windings as an autotransformer. The battery can still be charged while "bucking" an overvoltage, but while "boosting" an undervoltage, the transformer output is too low to charge the batteries. Autotransformers can be engineered to cover a wide range of varying input voltages, but this requires more taps and increases complexity, and the expense of the UPS. It is common for the autotransformer to cover a range only from about 90 V to 140 V for 120 V power, and then switch to battery if the voltage goes much higher or lower than that range. In low-voltage conditions the UPS will use more current than normal so it may need a higher current circuit than a normal device. For example to power a 1000-W device at 120 V, the UPS will draw 8.33 A. If a brownout occurs and the voltage drops to 100 V, the UPS will draw 10 A to compensate. This also works in reverse, so that in an overvoltage condition, the UPS will need less current.

Online/double-conversion UPS:

In an online UPS, the batteries are always connected to the inverter, so that no power transfer switches are necessary. When power loss occurs, the rectifier simply drops out of the circuit and the batteries keep the power steady and unchanged. When power is restored, the rectifier resumes carrying most of the load and begins charging the batteries, though the charging current may be limited to prevent the high-power rectifier from overheating the batteries and boiling off the electrolyte. The main advantage of an on-line UPS is its ability to provide an "electrical firewall" between the incoming utility power and sensitive electronic equipment.

The online UPS is ideal for environments where electrical isolation is necessary or for equipment that is very sensitive to power fluctuations. Although once previously reserved for very large installations of 10 kW or more, advances in technology have now permitted it to be available as a common consumer device, supplying 500 W or less. The initial cost of the online UPS may be higher, but its total cost of ownership is generally lower due to longer battery life. The online UPS may be necessary when the power environment is "noisy", when utility power sags, outages and other anomalies are frequent, when protection of sensitive IT equipment loads is required, or when operation from an extended-run backup generator is necessary. The basic technology of the online UPS is the same as in a standby or line-interactive UPS. However it typically costs much more, due to it having a much greater current AC-to-DC battery-charger/rectifier, and with the rectifier and inverter designed to run continuously with improved cooling systems. It is called a double-conversion UPS due to the rectifier directly driving the inverter, even when powered from normal AC current.

Multi-mode UPS:

These combine features of both single and double-conversion technologies while providing substantial improvements in both efficiency and reliability:

  • Under normal conditions, the system operates in line-interactive mode, saving energy and money while also keeping voltage within safe tolerances and resolving common anomalies found in utility power.
  • If AC input power falls outside of preset tolerances for line-interactive mode, the system automatically switches to double-conversion mode, completely isolating IT equipment from the incoming AC source.
  • If AC input power falls outside the tolerances of the double-conversion rectifier, or goes out altogether, the UPS uses the battery to keep supported loads up and running. When the generator comes online, the UPS switches to double-conversion mode until input power stabilizes. Then it transitions back to high-efficiency line-interactive mode.

Multi-mode UPSs are designed to dynamically strike an ideal balance between efficiency and protection. Under normal conditions, they provide maximum efficiency. When problems occur, however, they automatically sacrifice some efficiency to deliver maximum levels of protection. The end result is that data centres can save tens of thousands a year on energy without compromising data centre performance or reliability.

Hybrid topology / double conversion on demand UPS:

These hybrid Rotary UPS, designs do not have official designations, although one name used by HP and Eaton is "double conversion on demand", This style of UPS is targeted towards high-efficiency applications while still maintaining the features and protection level offered by double conversion. A hybrid (double conversion on demand) UPS operates as an off-line/standby UPS when power conditions are within a certain pre-set window. This allows the UPS to achieve very high efficiency ratings. When the power conditions fluctuate outside of the predefined windows, the UPS switches to online/double-conversion operation. In double-conversion mode the UPS can adjust for voltage variations without having to use battery power, can filter out line noise and control frequency. Examples of this hybrid/double conversion on demand UPS design are the HP R8000, HP R12000, HP RP12000/3 and the Eaton Blade UPS.

Ferro-resonant UPS:

Ferro-resonant units operate in the same way as a standby UPS unit; however, they are online with the exception that a ferro-resonant transformer is used to filter the output. This transformer is designed to hold energy long enough to cover the time between switching from line power to battery power and effectively eliminates the transfer time. Many ferro-resonant UPS's are 82-88% efficient (AC/DC-AC) and offer excellent isolation.

The transformer has three windings, one for ordinary mains power, the second for rectified battery power, and the third for output AC power to the load. This once was the dominant type of UPS and is limited to around the 150 kVA range. These units are still mainly used in some industrial settings (oil and gas, petrochemical, chemical, utility, and heavy industry markets) due to the robust nature of the UPS. Many ferro-resonant UPS's utilizing controlled ferro technology may not interact with power-factor-correcting equipment.

Rotary UPS:

A rotary UPS uses the inertia of a high-mass spinning flywheel (flywheel energy storage) to provide short-term ride-through in the event of power loss. The flywheel also acts as a buffer against power spikes and sags, since such short-term power events are not able to appreciably affect the rotational speed of the high-mass flywheel. It is also one of the oldest designs, predating vacuum tubes and integrated circuits.

It can be considered to be on line since it spins continuously under normal conditions. However, unlike a battery-based UPS, flywheel-based UPS systems typically provide 10 to 20 seconds of protection before the flywheel has slowed and power output stops. It is traditionally used in conjunction with standby diesel generators, providing backup power only for the brief period of time the engine needs to start running and stabilize its output. The rotary UPS is generally reserved for applications needing more than 10,000 W of protection, to justify the expense and benefit from the advantages rotary UPS systems bring. A larger flywheel or multiple flywheels operating in parallel will increase the reserve running time or capacity.

Because the flywheels are a mechanical power source, it is not necessary to use an electric motor or generator as an intermediary between it and a diesel engine designed to provide emergency power. By using a transmission gearbox, the rotational inertia of the flywheel can be used to directly start up a diesel engine, and once running, the diesel engine can be used to directly spin the flywheel. Multiple flywheels can likewise be connected in parallel through mechanical countershafts, without the need for separate motors and generators for each flywheel.

They are normally designed to provide very high current output compared to a purely electronic UPS, and are better able to provide inrush current for inductive loads such as motor start-up or compressor loads, as well as medical MRI and Cath Lab equipment. It is also able to tolerate short-circuit conditions up to 17 times larger than an electronic UPS, permitting one device to blow a fuse and fail while other devices still continue to be powered from the rotary UPS.

Its life cycle is usually far greater than a purely electronic UPS, up to 30 years or more. But they do require periodic downtime for mechanical maintenance, such as ball bearing replacement. In larger systems redundancy of the system ensures the availability of processes during this maintenance. Battery-based designs do not require downtime if the batteries can be hot-swapped, which is usually the case for larger units. Newer rotary units use technologies such as magnetic bearings and air-evacuated enclosures to increase standby efficiency and reduce maintenance to very low levels.

Typically, the high-mass flywheel is used in conjunction with a motor-generator system. These units can be configured as follows:

  • A motor driving a mechanically connected generator.
  • A combined synchronous motor and generator wound in alternating slots of a single rotor and stator.
  • A hybrid rotary UPS, designed similar to an online UPS, except that it uses the flywheel in place of batteries. The rectifier drives a motor to spin the flywheel, while a generator uses the flywheel to power the inverter.


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